Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-4, April 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 April, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries

Author: Shukrah M. , Abba, U. , Aminu A., Gambo A., Mu’azu I., Kabir M. | Published on: 2019-04-14 16:47:07   Page: 39-49   11

Abstract
Biotechnology entrepreneurship is now associated with a sustained flow of innovations and tools, offering dramatic improvements in human health and a compelling value proposition for health care and agricultural consumers as a result of entrepreneurial orientation being applied. Biotechnology entrepreneurship in developed and developing nations like that of Japan, China, India and that of Nigeria and even some Asian countries is relatively new and distinct field of entrepreneurial endeavors. Most current empirical researches are conducted in the developed economies and cannot be directly extrapolated to the developing economies. This research used a qualitative research method. The data collection methods were interviews, documents review and observations, which improved the quality of the research through data triangulation. In addition, some factors that influence the process of biotechnology entrepreneurship in developed and developing countries were identified as regulation, funding, infrastructure, skills, entrepreneurial and commercialization capabilities, etc. Biotechnology entrepreneurship in developed countries predominantly uses the “system approach” and the “individual approach” in developing nations. The process of biotechnology entrepreneurship in developed countries differs from the process in developing nations due to the differences in the environmental factors that influence biotechnology entrepreneurship, and management strategies, in these economies.

Keywords
Biotechnology Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurship; Biotechnology; Management Strategies; Developed and Developing Nations.

Cite this Article

×

Shukrah, M., , (2017), Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research, 1(4), 39-49.

  • Download Citation
  • ×

    Shukrah, M., , (2017) "Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries", International Journal For Empirical Education and Research, 1(4), pp.39-49.

  • Download Citation
  • ×

    Shukrah, M., , . Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2017; 1(4): 39-49.

  • Download Citation
  • ×

    Appeared

    ×

    Appeared

    ×

    Shukrah, M., , . Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2017; 1(4): 39-49.

  • Download Citation
  • ×

    Shukrah, M., , . Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2017; 1(4): 39-49.

  • Download Citation

  • Reference

    1. AhnM. J.Hajela, A., & AkbarM. (2012). High technology in emerging markets. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 4 Issue: 1, pp.23-41
    2. Ahn, M. J., Meeks M (2007). Building a conducive environment for life science- based entrepreneurship and industry clusters. J. Comm. Biotechnol. 14(1): 20 30.
    3. Ahn MJMeeks M,Bednarek RRoss CDalziel S (2010a). Towards a high-performance bioeconomyIntlJComm Mngmt20(4): 308-330.
    4. Battelle/Biotechnology Industry Organisation (2010). State Bioscience Initiatives. http://www.bio.org
    5. Battelle/Biotechnology Industry Organisation (2012). State Bioscience Industry Development. http://www.bio.org
    6. Biotechnology Industry Organisation (2008). Guide to biotechnology. http://www.bio.org
    7. Covello, V.T. 1992. Risk communication: an emerging area of health communication research. In Deetz.S (ed) Communication Yearbook 15.  Sage publications: Newbury Park and London. pp 359-373.
    8. Hamstra, A. (1992) “Consumer Research on Biotechnology,” in Durant, J. (ed.) Biotechnology in Public: A Review of Recent Researchpp42–51LondonScience Museum.
    9. Janeitz,E.(2003),‘Biotech  medicine’, Technology Review, 106 (8), 72–9.
    10. Kamaldeen, S. & Powell, D.A. 2000. “Food Safety Network Technical Report #17, Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph.
    11. Kettler H, Casper S (2001). Turning good science into successful businesses:   the technology transfer systems in the UK and Germany. J. Comm.  Biotechnol. 7(3): 197-207.
    12. Kivinen O, Varelius J (2003). The emerging field of biotechnology - the case of Finland. Science, Technology & Human Values. 28(1): 141 - 161.
    13. Muller C, Fujiwara T (2002). The commercialization of biotechnology in Japan, Drug Discovery Today. 7(13): 699-704.
    14. Müller C, Fujiwara T, Herstatt C (2004). Sources of bio entrepreneurship: the cases of Germany and Japan. J. Small. Bus. Mngmt. 42(1): 93-101.
    15. Pardo, R., Midden, C. & Miller, J.D. (2002). Attitudes toward biotechnology in the European Union, Journal of Biotechnology 98, 9-24.
    16. Rabiu A. Gurbi (2015). Entrepreneurship education: Pedagogic, Entrepreneurial & socio/emotional elements.Nigerian context.
    17. Sagar, A., Demmrich,A. &Ashiya, M. (2000). The tragedy of the commoners:  biotechnology and its public. Nature Biotechnology 18, January 2000:  2-4.
    18. Sandman, P.M. (1987). Risk communication: facing public outrage. EPA Journal   13:21.
    19. Schneider, J. (2002), ‘Intellectual property: the driving force for growth and funding’, Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 8 (4), 320–24.
    20. Slovic, P. (1992). Perception of Risk: Reflection on the Psychometric Paradigm. In Golding, D.; Krimski S (eds.) Social Theories of Risk (edited by.). Praeger: New York, USA.
    21. Teague, P.E. (2000), ‘Technopreneurs’, Design News, 55 (14), 9–10.

    [This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).]

    DOI


    Author Details


    Shukrah M.
    Department of Biochemistry (Biotechnology)
    Bayero University
    abbahassan810@gmail.com

    Abba, U.
    Department of Biochemistry (Biotechnology)
    Bayero University

    Aminu A., Gambo A., Mu’azu I., Kabir M.
    College of Health Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science
    Bayero University