Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-4, April 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 April, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

All Articles

IJTEM 1/1

A Literature Review on Computer Cartography

Anik Shuvra Daw    Page 1-10 13

Depending upon how we look at it, Computer Cartography can be considered now to be twenty years old (the first contour map was produced about twenty years ago), or a dozen years (the first major project in Computer Cartography, the Canadian Geographical Information System was started in 1963). This is not to say that we started out from scratch twelve or twenty years ago. On the contrary, we had all the tools and all the power from different disciplines, including Computer Science, Geography, Cartography and the Survey Sciences. If we assume that every discipline has some milestones in its development, it has to be said that in Computer Cartography these milestones did not happen or happened virtually unnoticed by the discipline. .

Read more

IJTEM 3/18

International Labor Organization & its Contribution in Different Periods

Sanabil Almubidin    Page 1-12 9

The International Labor Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency that sets international labor standards and promotes social protection and work opportunities for all. The ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The tripartite structure is unique to the ILO where representatives from the government, employers and employees openly debate and create labor standards. The International Labor Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labor Organization. It is the focal point for International Labor Organization's overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General.

Read more

IJTEM 3/18

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

N. S. Raju    Page 13-25 8

Acknowledging that change in the Earth’s climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind, concerned that human activities have been substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, that these increases enhance the natural greenhouse effect, and that this will result on average in an additional warming of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere and may adversely affect natural ecosystems and humankind. Noting that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs. Aware of the role and importance in terrestrial and marine ecosystems of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases. Noting that there are many uncertainties in predictions of climate change, particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude and regional patterns thereof. Acknowledging that the global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions.

Read more

IJTEM 3/18

An Overview on Different Dimensions of OSCE

Anand Inani    Page 26-41 10

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland. .

Read more

IJTEM 3/18

European Union & its Contribution to the Development of Society and Nation

Masum Billah    Page 42-69 8

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardized system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.

Read more

IJTEM 3/18

Geographic Information System & Spatial Analysis

Naser Ahmed Bipu    Page 70-90 8

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. GIS (more commonly GIS science) sometimes refers to geographic information science (GIS science), the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems. GIS can refer to a number of different technologies, processes, techniques and methods. It is attached to many operations and has many applications related to engineering, planning, management, transport/logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Inclusive Curriculum Design: Application to Open Channel Hydraulics Module

Jaan Hui Pu    Page 1-10 6

This study investigates an inclusive curriculum design based on student-centred approach. This proposed design approach has been applied to Open Channel Hydraulics module (CSE6008-A) at School of Engineering, University of Bradford, United Kingdom. This paper will introduce in step-by-step manner the full curriculum design and how the student-centred approach is being adapted in each step of the design. The required criteria will be designed based on learning outcomes design, curriculum organization, assessment strategies and student achievement evaluation. Besides, a key discussion will also be allocated for the inclusive practice that allows the vastly diverse student group to benefit from this approach, and a separate section will also be utilized to fully discuss this inclusive approach in the proposed curriculum design.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Fair Income Distribution in Islamic Economics: Wealth Taxes in Turkey in Theory and in Practice

Ahmet AK ; Abdullah Burhan BAHÇE ; Öner GÜMÜS    Page 11-21 10

Islamic economy holds various features in its body. It is possible that one of the most important features is to provide a fair income distribution. Income distribution has a capacity to create indignation in society when income distribution is not formed as fair. Hence, income is not distributed as fair generally in primary income distribution. The government has to interfere in market to provide justice in secondary income distribution.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Terrorist Attacks in Europe and Options of Terrorism Prevention

JUDr. Milos Deset Ph.D.   Page 22-31 5

The terrorism can be considered as the political or security problem, but it is also the kind of crime, although it is very specific crime. However, considering it as the crime, we can also think about it in the connection with criminological categories as the prevention, for example. When we look at latest terrorist attacks, we can name their several common features. For example, tools, which were used for commitment of these crime, were very simple, because perpetrators attacked by firearms, stabbing weapons or vehicles. That means that perpetrators cannot have more sophisticated skills to commit terrorist attacks by these tools.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Similarity Concept in Theory Lecturing: Application to Transportation Studies

Jaan Hui Pu    Page 32-40 5

In this paper, a similarity concept is proposed to improve student understanding on difficult and complicated engineering theory. The planned application of this approach is for the Transportation Studies module (CSE6004-A) at School of Engineering, University of Bradford, United Kingdom. In the module, noise induced by road transport and vehicles are taught in depth, where the proposed teaching method will be applied to aid student understanding on the numerical concept of the vibration effect and noise on vehicle braking system. As part of the module planning, the full numerical solution of brake judder/vibration effect, which includes shaking (forced vibration) and nibbling (torsional vibration) effects will be introduced to students where similarity concept will be adapted in its teaching. The successfully applied concept will also be able to utilize by other engineering teaching and modules.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

An Elaboration of the Administrative Theory of the 14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol

Raymond Edwards    Page 41-52 6

Fayolism was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized the role of management in organizations, developed around 1900 by the French management theorist Henri Fayol (1841–1925). It was through Fayol's work as a philosopher of administration that he contributed most widely to the theory and practice of organizational management. Fayol developed theory of management. According to him managerial excellence is a technically ability and can be acquired. He developed theories and principles of management which are universally accepted and make him universalistic.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Sonochemical Degradation of Phenol and Para-Chlorophenol in an Ultrasonic bath in the Presence of Inorganic Salts and H2O2

Md. Helal Uddin ; Md. Jahangir Hossain ; Md. Shaharul Islam    Page 53-63 5

Phenol (Ph) and some of its derivatives such as para chloro-phenol (PCP) have received considerable attention from environmental scientists and engineers, due to their undesirable effects in the water environment, where they end up as a result of improper disposal methods. As a consequence, research has been conducted all around the world with the common goal of reducing their concentrations to allowable limits or converting them to non-toxic, non-hazardous forms that may easily be handled by natural decay processes. This report describes a system developed to degrade these substances using sonochemical reactions. Sonochemical degradation of phenolic compounds were carried out in the presence and absence of NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, NaNO3 and H2O2. In sonochemical degradation of phenol in sonicatior hight degradation rate was obtained in the presence of additives H2O2 and followed the order: Ph+H2O2 > Ph+Na2SO4 ? Ph+NaCl > Ph (0 mM salt & additive) ? Ph+NaNO3 > Ph+Na2CO3.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Corruption – Development of Criminal Matter in Slovakia, Criminal Liability of the Government Entities and Legal Persons

Adrián Jalc Ph.D.   Page 64-82 6

In the countries from central Europe we can find corruption not only on high level but also in low level called "less serious corruption". However, this corruption is spread in all parts of the society. It causes that almost all citizens of these regions have already had experiences with concrete and not official, but essential payments in diverse fields, for instances: in health services, educational system etc. Next problem is that the fight against corruption is very difficult because many employees of police, justice and plaintiff who would have to take the responsibility of corruption are often people who are the most influenced by it. Considering the weight of this circumstances we can say about necessity of restructualization in the state for the purpose of more effective fight against the corruption.

Read more

IJTEM 2/6

Militarization - Is it a Threat to the National Security of Bangladesh?

Kaniz Subarna    Page 83-92 5

Militarization defines as the method by which a state increases its military capacity to defend itself against any kind of violence and war. This note discusses the full and complete concept about militarization with today’s Bangladesh. Militarization can be a threat or not to the national security of Bangladesh, this study shows and describes it well. .

Read more

IJTEM 2/7

Metabolic Changes in Polyamines, Phenylethylamine, And Arginine During Bud Break in Apple Flower Buds Under Foliar-Applied Dormancy-Breaking Agents

Mostafa M. Rady ; *Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-18 5

The Environmental and climatic conditions affect the flower bud growth, flowering and yield performance of fruit species. Temperature appears to be important factors for temperate fruit trees in mild climates. The relationships between breaking bud dormancy and climatic influences on flowering, growth and metabolic changes in contents of biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine and phenylethylamine), arginine and anthocyanin before and after bud break were evaluated for "Ain Shemer" apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees under exogenously applied hydrogen cyanamide (dormex), calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 and thiourea. The studies have shown that breaking bud dormancy (as early date of bud break and percentage of bud break) by the above dormancy breaking agents were correlated with the high content of biogenic amines and arginine in buds. Seasonal variations in biogenic amines, arginine and anthocyanin level were present in buds during the research period (dormancy and dormancy release period).

Read more

IJTEM 2/7

A Feminist Perspective and the Challenge of Post Conflict Development in Africa

Mashood Omotosho Ph.D.   Page 19-36 9

In the last two decades, Africa has witnessed series of wars and ethno-religious conflicts with devastating impact on women. Various atrocities against women have been recorded during these conflicts and these developments have created a dangerous dimension against non-combatant women in the continent. In an attempt to resolve the conflict and armed conflict on women in the areas of sexual and gender-based violence, series of peace missions and peace building mechanism were put in place. Despite the various peace negotiations, evidence has shown that women are largely absent from formal peace negotiations and their voices are not heard both at local and continental levels especially within the modern-day challenges and post conflict development. In fact, the transformation agenda of post-conflict peace negotiations routinely failed to consider the gendered causes and consequences of armed conflict and post-conflict reconstruction.

Read more

IJTEM 2/7

Integrative Potassium Humate and Biochar Application Reduces Salinity Effects and Contaminants, And Improves Growth and Yield of Eggplant Grown Under Saline Conditions

Mostafa M. Rady    Page 37-56 5

In agriculture sector, soil salinity is one of the major problems that limit plant performance, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, including Egypt. The effect of potassium humate (KH) and casuarina biochar (Bch), applied singly or in integration, on plant performance, physio-biochemical attributes and antioxidant, and contents of contaminants of Solanum melongena plants grown under salt stress (EC = 6. 96 – 7. 08 dS m?1 ) was investigated. Results showed that, soil treatment with KH significantly improved plant growth and productivity, physio-biochemical attributes, and contents of K+ , osmoprotectants and antioxidants (soluble sugars, proline and ascorbic acid), and significantly lowered plant contents of contaminants (NO3 ? , NO2 ? and Cd2+) and Na+ ion compared to the untreated controls.

Read more

IJTEM 2/7

Foliar-Applied Mineral Oil Enhanced Hormones and Phenols Content and Hastened Breaking Bud Dormancy In “Astrachan” Apple Trees

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 57-73 8

The effect of mineral oil alone or in combination with Dintro-ortho-cresol (Universal) with different concentrations at early reaching break dormancy in buds of ‘Astrachan’ apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees was investigated. Also, their effects on metabolic changes in the content of buds from promoter and inhibitor substances during their release from dormancy were detected. The efficiency of early bud break was noticed in varying degrees with mineral oil or Universal at different concentrations. It was observed that all applied concentrations lead to early bud break, short flowering duration, high percentages of bud break and fruit-set. In addition, high contents of total indoles, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, total and conjugated phenols, as well as, low content of abscisic acid and free phenols were achieved.

Read more

IJTEM 2/7

Biotechnology and Performance of SMEs in Nigeria

Nasidi A    Page 74-82 7

Nigerian SMEs suffers greatly in terms of struggling for survival. Access to finance is seen as the root of the major constrains including; limited access to water and power supply, good and quality raw-materials as well as modern infrastructures and processing methods. This paper adopts the desk research approach to review the cause and possible solutions and alternatives that can by-pass such constraints. Biotechnology, due to its natural and broad spectrum of application is seen as the potential solution to many of the problems that paralyses performance of Nigerian SMEs. When applied responsibly, the technology has potential of providing alternative source of; sufficient and high quality raw-materials, water and power supply as well as processing methods for industries at a considerably low price, thus, enhancing environmental friendliness, besides improving opportunities for new initiatives, and also enhancing performance efficiency of existing firms.

Read more

IJTEM 3/19

Impact of Propolis Extract as Foliar Spray On Growth, Yield and Some Chemical Composition of Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.) Plants Grown Under Calcareous Saline Soil

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-14 12

This experiment was suggested to study the beneficial effects of foliar application with propolis extract at the rates 0, 6000, 7000, 8000 and 9000 mg/L solution used as foliar application to spinach seedlings on growth, yield and some chemical constituents of spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L. ) grown under calcareous saline soil conditions. All experiments were achieved during the two successive seasons of 2016 and 2017. Results showed that increasing the rates of propolis extract as foliar application increased the growth parameters of the treated plants. The best result was obtained by the rate (8000 mg/L) as a foliar application in both seasons of the study.

Read more

IJTEM 3/19

Global Warming Potential & its Importance

Anik Shuvra Daw    Page 15-20 3

Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere up to a specific time horizon, relative to carbon dioxide. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide and is expressed as a factor of carbon dioxide. .

Read more

IJTEM 3/19

South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation & its Contribution to the South Asian Politics and Economy

Masum Billah    Page 21-30 3

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3. 8% (US$2. 9 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2015.

Read more

IJTEM 3/19

Flooding in Bangladesh: A Geographical Advantage & Disadvantage of Times

Jahidul Islam    Page 31-41 5

Bangladesh is prone to flooding due to being situated on the Ganges Delta and the many distributaries flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Coastal flooding, combined with the bursting of river banks is common, and severely affects the landscape and society of Bangladesh. 80% of Bangladesh is floodplain, and it has an extensive sea coastline, rendering the nation very much at risk of periodic widespread damage. Whilst more permanent defenses, strengthened with reinforced concrete, are being built, many embankments are composed purely of soil and turf and made by local farmers. Flooding normally occurs during the monsoon season from June to September.

Read more

IJTEM 3/19

Supply Chain Management: A Descriptive Conception

Katharine R Berthold    Page 42-65 3

In commerce, supply-chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain. .

Read more